Main Architectural Design Concepts
Main Architectural Design Concepts
Architecture is the creative process and the physical product of designing, planning, and building physical structures or buildings. Architectural projects, from the simplest material form such as homes to major governmental buildings, can be considered art and are often perceived as visual symbols. Architecture also includes the design and construction of parks, zoos, gardens, bridges, buildings for science and space research, hospitals, educational facilities, retail shops, and public spaces. The architect’s work usually incorporates technical aspects such as lighting, ventilation, safety, security, aesthetics, construction materials, and building orientation.
In general architectural styles are categorized into four: functional, historical, developmental, and ornamental. Buildings and other physical structures designed for functional needs must comply with local and regional building codes; for historic buildings on the other hand, regulations differ from place to place. Functional buildings must be well suited to their surroundings in terms of space, energy consumption, aesthetics, and environmental issues. Architectural styles are those that result from the mix of practical considerations and artistic impressions. Architectural styles may be categorized as modern, traditional, or Gothic.
Architectural styles are further divided into four: pre-modern, post-modern, contemporary, and historic. Pre-modern or modern architecture comprises styles developed in Europe in the last four centuries before the Industrial Revolution; these include Baroque, Neoclassicism, and French Classical. Post-modern architecture characterizes buildings built in rapid succession following the style typified by the Neoclassicism school. Contemporary designs are those developed after the 1950s. In addition, the term encompasses any architectural style that combines elements from different styles. The main article concerning architecture will help readers understand the difference between these various styles.
Landscape architecture is the study of how the landscape is used to produce a built environment. This type of architecture can be seen in gardens, towns, parks, and the countryside. An important main article regarding landscape architecture will show how an architect can incorporate the landscape into the planned design. A landscape architect has to take into consideration such factors as water, building orientations, views, slopes, vegetation, the climate, etc. An important main article concerning landscape architecture will also describe different types of landscapes suitable for particular architectural styles.
Urban planning is concerned with the visual aspect of a built environment. The analysis and design of an urban space require the combined knowledge of physical planning, social science, design, and technology. An important main article regarding urban planning will describe the timeline of an urban plan. It is important to have a timeline when planning an urban design since it will serve as the basis of future construction. A timeline should incorporate all critical aspects for planning an urban space.
Interior architecture is concerned with the overall layout and arrangement of buildings within a planned structure. The analysis of interior architecture makes use of several different types of information such as demographics, population, housing needs, current land use, future land use, and others. The general concepts involved in this type of architectural design are space planning, building functionality, form, mass, texture, size, lighting, and others. Interior architecture also takes into account the aesthetic quality of the built environment.