Architecture is the art and the creative process of designing, planning, and building structures or other artistic constructions. Architectural works, at the most basic material form such as buildings, can be perceived as visual works and as visual representations of the social reality. Architectural works therefore have a social message to communicate to its audiences, as well as a specific message for the architect that helps to distinguish the architect from other artists and designers. The work of architects also forms a part of the historical heritage of mankind.
An architecture topic involves the systematic arrangement of material, human resources, technology, and other relevant factors in the built environment to create a functional design. This design will be used to determine the optimal volume and location of human activity, to assess energy requirements, to establish the optimum use of space, to define the purpose and the design of a building and more. In order to analyze and provide information on the built environment, there are many disciplines within the field of architecture that have developed over the course of history. These include civil engineering, structural engineering, architecture, environmental science, and the history of architecture.
Urban Planning: Urban planning deals with issues related to how people live in a built environment, as well as the design of spaces within this environment. It can be broadly categorized into housing, community and town planning. Within housing, this includes everything that has to do with building and planning the construction of homes and other facilities. Community and town planning relates to the design of recreational areas, parks, commercial projects, and other facilities. A variety of other topics are also included in the curriculum of urban planning.
Landscape Architecture: Landscape architecture is concerned with the design of outdoor space, such as parks, plazas, gardens, etc. This includes everything that surrounds a home or office building, including the way the building is oriented to the landscape and the type of materials used to build it. Landscape architecture is an important part of the planning and design of a built environment, as it can affect the aesthetic quality of the space as well as its functionality.
Architectural Design: architectural design involves the creative process by which architects create spaces and the design of buildings. This can include everything from the selection of materials to the total layout and placement of furniture within a building. This is a very broad discipline and there is a lot of creativity required to develop a beautiful built environment. Design students wishing to specialise in this field should undertake a degree or diploma in landscape architecture.
A further type of architecture is categorized as speculative architecture. This incorporates some of the techniques used in traditional architectural styles but allows architects to explore new ways of achieving the same results. It also tries to use innovative solutions for the problems associated with the day-to-day use of space in the built environment. For instance, if an architect is designing a public space that can accommodate a large number of people, it will incorporate some elements of traditional architecture, such as a grand entry way or a series of linked chambers that contain different activities. Such designs may be inspired by the way in which certain cities are designed, such as New York or San Francisco, or they may be designed to include the essence of an international city, such as Barcelona.