Different Kinds of Architecture
Different Kinds of Architecture
Architecture is the creation and the process of building, designing, and planning buildings or other physical structures. Architectural projects, at the common material form of houses, can be perceived as artistic works and as visual representations. Architecture projects can be undertaken for functional as well as aesthetic reasons. The architectural styles and practices of different periods in history are a valuable source for studying architecture today.
Urban planning emerged as an academic discipline in the late nineteenth century with the formation of the Art Institutes. Urban planning is an art of the arrangement of spaces in order to create a well-functioning and safe living environment. Architectural style is not fixed and rather changes with time and culture. The invention of the building block system and associated machine machinery drastically altered the landscape of earlier buildings. Furthermore, new materials were introduced to support the rapid development of urban living such as steel, concrete, aluminum, glass, and materials capable of withstanding the rigorous weather conditions of the twentieth century.
Since the start of the twentieth century, changes have occurred in the design of most buildings, both in residential and commercial applications. Traditional construction techniques, such as adobe brick construction, have been replaced by modern methods such as the Populism of the “modern” era, characterized by the use of steel and concrete for city infrastructure, and the associated factory buildings. The movement towards a “builder-friendly” lifestyle brought about a complete change in the architecture and planning of many cities in the United States and Canada. A new focus was shifted towards sustainable urban design, resulting in a significant shift in the use of materials such as steel, concrete, and glass. New ideas regarding energy conservation led to the elimination of traditional insulation, and in place of more thermally efficient materials, a more energy-efficient design was adopted.
Urban planning and landscape architecture therefore, are integral parts of the development process of any city. These professions require an eye for historic sites, a flair for design, knowledge of building regulations, the ability to work with a variety of people and a willingness to be self-active. As urban planners influence the design of new cities, they are also responsible for the preservation and maintenance of existing cities. Additionally, they may be called upon to provide advice concerning the incorporation of green building technologies into the design of new buildings. In general, their role and activities are determined by the type of development undertaken, but there is often considerable interaction with developers who decide to build new communities around existing cities.
Landscape architecture, on the other hand, refers to the design of buildings and landscapes that complement the main urban design. In most cases, the architect works in conjunction with the planner or designer. Although they report directly to the architect, they have little or no influence over the decision-making process. Instead, the planner or designer informs the architect about what type of buildings will be built based on the needs and priorities of the clientele. This is in contrast to the case of industrial architecture, where architectural plans are developed in tandem with those of the industry and altered to fit the specific needs of the clientele. Although landscape architecture is used to enhance the visual appeal of existing buildings and neighborhoods, it may be employed to improve the functionality of existing structures or to facilitate the movement of traffic within an urban area.
Architectural Engineering involves the application of science and technology to the design and construction of buildings and spaces. The most common architectural discipline within the field is environmental architecture which seeks to maximize natural systems and environmental conditions in order to create livable cities. Within this field, the architect plays an important role in determining what kind of materials will be used in the construction of a building and how these materials will interact with one another. Other architectural fields include the decorative arts, sustainable architecture and landscape architecture.